natural awareness
relaxed presence, unfabricated, flowing, just as it is

 may all be healthy, happy, at ease in their body, at home in the world

Buddhist List of Lists

compiled by George Draffan


2 accumulations

merit (punyasambhara)

wisdom (jnanasambhara)


2 benefits

for onself and for others

2 obscurations (avarana)

conflicting emotions (klesavarana) resulting from believing in me and mine

prmitive beliefs about reality (jneyavarana) from believing objects are substantial and independent


3 armaments [note 1]

what one has learned (sutavudham)

detachment (pavivekavudham)

wisdom (pannavudham)


3 baskets (Tripitaka)

Vinaya Pitaka (in 3 parts: Suttavibhanga or 227 rules of the pattimokkha plus the rules for nuns; Khandhaka or chapters detailing the rules, broken into Mahavagga and Culavagga; and Parivara, appendix).

Sutta Pitaka (Digha Nikaya 34 long suttas: Majjhima Nikaya 152 medium length suttas; Samyutta Nikaya 2875 connected suttas in 52 groups; Anguttara Nikaya 2198 suttas arranged in 11-fold numerical categories; and Khuddaka Nikaya 15 separate works including the Dhammapada).

Abhidhamma Pitaka (7 texts added at various later times: Dhammasangani enumeration of dhammas; Vibhanga analysis of dhammas; Dhatukatha discussion o f elements; Puggalapannatti desscription of individuals; Kathavatthu points of controversy between sects; Yamaka book of pairs; and Patthana book of relations).


3 (4) bodies [note 2]

1. dharmakaya (dimension of what is) = emptiness.

2. sambhogakaya (dimension of quality) = emptiness and vividness are not two separate things.

3. nirmanakaya (dimension of what appears) = the vividness.

4. svabhavakaya (dimension of being) = the totality of the experience; totality, emptiness, and vividness are simultaneous.


3 conceits [note 3]

I am better than...

I am equal to...

I am worse than...


3 concentrations [note 4]

with thinking and pondering

with pondering without thinking

with neither pondering nor thinking


3 more concentrations [note 5]

on emptiness

the signless



3 corruptions [note 6]

sense-desire (kamasavo)

becoming (bhavasavo)

ignorance (avijjasavo)


3 cravings [note 7]

for sense pleasure (kamatanha)

for existence (bhavatanha)

for non-existence (vibhavatanha)


3 disciplines





3 doors of liberation





3 ends (anta) [note 8]


its arising

its cessation


3 faiths [note 9]

sincere interest in the 3 jewels as the source and guide on the path

longing to pursue the path

trust arising from conviction in the truth of karma and 4 noble truths


3 feeling-tones (feeling-sensations, vedana) [note 10]





3 fetters (see also 10 fetters) [note 11]

belief in self (sakkayaditthi)

doubt (vicikiccha)

attachment to trites and rituals (silabbatapaaramaso)


3 intoxications [note 12]

with health

with youth

with life


3 jewels





3 marks of existence (4 seals)

suffering, imperfection (dukkha, duhka)

impermanence, change (anicca, anitya)

emptiness, no separate self or things (anatta, anatman)



3 miracles [note 13]

psychic power




3 quests [note 14]

for sense-desires

for becoming

for the holy life


3 realms of samsara

realm of desire (kamadhatu)

realm of form (rupadhatu)

formless realm (arupadhatu)


3 roots of the vajrayana

blessing (lama)

accomplishement (yidam)

activity (dharmapalas)


3 sufferings [note 15]

of suffering (dukkha-dukkhata)

due to change (viparinama-dukkhata)

inherent in formations themselves (sankhara-dukkhata)


3 trainings (disciplines)

sila (morality or ethics)

samadhi (concentration or meditation)

prajna (wisdom or understanding)


3 unsurpassables [note 16]

vision (dassananuttariyam)

practice (patipadanuttariyam)

liberation (vimuttanuttariyam)


3 vows [note 17]

vow of individual liberation: hinayana: refuge vow

vow of awakening being: mahayana: bodhisattva vow

vow of direct awareness: vajrayana: samaya vow


4 absorptions see 8 absorptions


4 attentions [note 18] (see also 9 stages of shamata)

tight attention

interrupted attention

uninterrupted attention

spontaneous attention


4 bases of sympathy [note 19] (see also 4 social means)


pleasing speech

beneficial conduct



4 certainties of a buddha (vaisharadya) [note 20]

that perfect enlightenment is irreversible

that all defilements are exhausted

that all obstacles have been overcome

of having proclaimed the way of abandoning samsara


4 clingings [note 21]

to sensuality

to views

to ruules and rituals

to belief in self


4 demons of chod [note 22] (4 obsessions [note 23])

tangible demons, or sense perceptions (obsession with the outer world)

intangible demons, or positive or negative thoughts (obsession with reactive emotions)

exaltation, or attachment to blissful experiences(obsession with pleasure and power)

arrogance, or attachment to self (obsession with sense of self)


4 Dharmas of Gampopa

Grant your blessing so that my mind may be one with the Dharma.

Grant your blessing so that the Dharma may follow the path.

Grant your blessing so that the Dharma may clarify confusion.

Grant your blessing so that I may transform confusion into wisdom.


4 divisions of emptiness [note 24] (see also 16 divisions)

the emptiness of things (of the aggregates)

the emptiness of non-things (of unconditioned phenomena)

the emptiness of nature (the lack of inherent existence)

the emptiness that is the other nature (the supreme nature of nirvana)


4 efforts (sammappadhana, samyakprahanani) [note 25]

1. restraint (to prevent unwholesome states such as graping or sorrow based on attachment to sense objects)

2. abandoning (to abandon or overcome unwholesome states such as lust, hatred, or cruelty)

3. development (of wholesome states such as mindfulness, detachment, investigation, energy, delight, tranquillity, concentration, and equanimity)

4. preservation (to maintain wholesome states by maintaining concentration on the object of meditation)


4 empowerments (abhiseka)

vase (kala) of the five families: water, crown, vajra, bell, and name

secret (guhya)




4 factors of Stream-Attainment [note 26]

association with good people

hearing the true Dhamma

thorough attention

practice of the Dhamma in its entirety


4 fearlessnesses [note 27]

having abandoned all limitations or faults

being the complete embodiment of realization

fearless in showing the path

fearless in pointing out the obscurations and obstacles


4 foundations of mindfulness






4 forces (4 opponent powers) [note 28])

regret (recognize)

reliance (disidentify)

remedy (develop a practice)

resolution (cut with practice)


4 fundamentals of chod [note 29]

to abide in emptiness

not to exclude any being

to follow eactly the instructions received

to be endowed with the spiritual influence of the sugatas


4 immeasurable attitudes

loving kindness


sympathetic joy



4 kinds of progress [note 30]

painful progress with slow comprehension

painful progress with quick comprehension

pleasant progress with slow comprehension

pleasant progress with quick compreension

4 more kinds of progress

progress with impatience

patient progress

controlled progress

calm progress


4 kinds of resolve (adhitthanani) [note 31]


truth (sacca)

relinquishment (caga)

tranquillity (upasama)


4 knowledges [note 32]

knowledge of Dharma

of what is consonant with it

of others’ minds

conventional knowledge


4 more knowledges [note 33]

of suffering

of its origin

of its cessation

of the path


4 maras


afflictive mental states


external obstructions


4 methods for increasing effort [note 34]

aspiration to engage in virtue





4 noble truths

the truth of suffering

the cause of suffering

the truth of the end of suffering

the 8-fold path to end suffering: understanding, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, energy, meditation, samadhi


4 nutriments (ahara) [note 35]

material food, gross or subtle


mental volition



4 offerings (Tib. mchod-pa) [note 36]

outer (material) offerings

inner (giving up attachment to one's body)

secret (surrendering ego reinforcement)

recognizing the inseparability of offerer, offering, and recipient


4 powers [note 37]






4 qualities of karma

karma is fixed (certain seeds produce certain results)

karma shows great increase (even small seeds bear results)

results do not arise without seeds (no magic)

once created, karma will not disappear of its own accord


4 reminders

precious hman existence


the truth of karma

the unsatisfactoriness of samsara


4 results






4 results of karma [note 38]

full ripening into a projected world in terms of which everything is interpreted

predisposition to reproduce behavior

predisposition to reproduce the experience (feeling as though others are stealing from you, when you are stealing from them)

perceptual distortion to conform to the structure of the pattern


4 roads to power (iddhipada) [note 39]

intention accompanied by effort of will

concentration of energy

concentration of consciousness

concentration of investigation accompanied by effort of will


4 rules of monastic life [note 40]

sexual intercourse



claiming greater realization than what one has attained


4 samadhi meditations (samadhi-bhavana) [note 41]

1. leading to happiness here and now (by practicing the 4 jhanas)

2. gaining knowledge and vision (by attending to the perception of light, developing a mind full of brightness)

3. leading to mindfulness and clear awareness (by knowing feelings, perceptions, and thoughts as they arise)

4. leading to destruction of the corruptions (by contemplating the rise and fall of the five aggregates)


4 schools of philosophical tenets







4 social means

giving what is useful to others

speaking kindly (effective communication)

acting for others' benefit

setting an example (practicing what you preach)


4 social means (see also 4 bases of sympathy)



acting in accord with local customs

benefitting others


4 supreme offerings [note 42]

upholding the Dharma

developing the wish for supreme enlightenment

putting one's studies into practice

mentally offering one's virtues


4 tantras

1. kriya (action) = vajra, lotus, and tathagata lineages. Mainly external actions.

2. carya tantra (performance). Equal emphasis on external and internal actions.

3. yoga tantra. Mainly internal actions.

4. annuttarayoga (highest yoga) = mother (eg Heruka, developing clear light) and father (eg Guhyasamaja, developing illusory body).


4 tantric activities [note 43]


increasing (enriching)




4 terrors that cannot be escaped by fleeing, force, wealth, magic, medicine, etc

old age





4 thoughts that turn the mind toward the Dharma

precious hman existence


the truth of karma

the unsatisfactoriness of samsara


4 ties [note 44]

the body-tie to hankering

to ill-will

attachment to rites and rituals

dogmatic fanaticism


4 unyokings [note 45]

from sensuality

from becoming

from views

from ignorance


4 ways of answering questions [note 46]

answering directly

giving an explanation

asking a counter-question

setting aside


4 ways of going wrong (agatagamanani) [note 47]

through desire

through hatred

through delusion

through fear


4 yogas of mahamudra

one-pointedness (rtse-gcig)

simplicity (spros-ba)

one taste (re-gcig)

nonmeditation (sgom-med)


5 aggregates (skandhas)




mental functions



5 buddha families



dharmadhatu wisdpm






mirrorlike wisdom












discriminating awareness






accomplishing wisdom





5 clairvoyances [note 48]

divine eye

divine ear

knowing others' minds

remembering past lives

magical emanations


5 degenerations [note 49]

decrease in lifespan

perverted views and no faith

klesas being rampant

sentient beings difficult to teach

warfare and degraded society


5 degrees of enlightenment in Ch’an (Jap. Go-i) [note 50]

1. The relative in the midst of the absolute (phenomena dominates, but is experienced as a manifestation of the fundamental true nature).

2. The absolute in the midst of the relative (nondistinction comes to the fore).

3. The one coming out of the midst of the absolute with the relative polarly related to it (no awareness of body or mind; both drop completely away).

4. Entering between the two polar aspects (emptiness has vanished into phenomena).

5. Having already arrived in the middle of both (form and emptiness fully interpenetrate each other; intentionless action in response to circumstances).


5 deluded views [note 51]

equating self with the perishable aggregates

extreme views (permanence, independence, absolute truth)

holding the aggregates to be supreme

holding an ethic or mode of behavior to be supreme

wrong views (denying the four noble truths, karma, etc)


5 factors in the power of an action [note 52] (see also 6 differences)

the person who is the object of the action

the vows taken (all actions are more powerful once vows are taken)

the object that is instrumental in the action (giving food to a starving person is more powerful than giving a toy)

the motivation (actions are more powerful with stronger motivation)


5 faculties [note 53]

faith (saddha)






5 fetters see 10 fetters


5 hindrances or obstructions (nivarana), elimination of which is the precondition for:

attaining the five stages of absorption (dhyana):

sensuality, attachment, sense desire (abhidya, kamacchanda)

ill-will, aversion, anger (vyapada, pradosha)

sloth & torpor (thina-middha, stanya & middha)

worry & flurry (uddhacca-kukkucca, anuddhatya & kaukritya)

sceptical doubt (vicikiccha, vichikitsa)


5 impossible things for an Arhat [note 54]

to deliberately take the life of another living being

to steal

sexual intercourse

telling a deliberate lie

storing up goods for sensual indulgence


5 inattentivenesses [note 55]

do not pay attention to your teacher's faults

do not pay attention to your teacher's coming from a lower class

do not pay attention to your teacher's physical appearance

do not pay attention to your teacher's patterns of speech

do not find fault in your teacher giving blame or criticism


5 paths

accumulation (samharamarga, tshogs-lam)

application or unification (prayomarga, sbyor-lam)

seeing (darsnamarga, mthong-lam)

meditation (bhavanamarga, sgom-lam)

no more learning or fulfillment (asaiksamarga or nisthamarga, mi-slob-pa'i-lam or mthar-phyin-pa'i-lam)


5 pitfalls to shamata and 8 adjustments [note 56]



wishing for shamata



forgetting the instruction


excitement and dullness







5 pitfalls to shamata and 8 adjustments (5 roadblocks and 8 tools) [note 57]










not making an effort

resoring balance

trying too hard



5 points to be borne in mind when wishing to rebuke another [note 58]

I will speak at tthe proper time, not the wrong time.

I will state the truth, not what is false.

I will speak gently, not roughly.

I will speak for the other’s good. not his harm.

I will speak with love in my heart, not with enmity.


5 poisons (klesha)

ignorance (moha, gti-mug)

greed (raga, dod-chags)

hatred (dvesa, zhe-sdang)

jealousy (irsya, phrag-dog)

pride (manas, nga-rgyal)


5 powers

white seed






5 precepts against




sexual misconduct



5 signs of mastery of mind training [note 59]

You will be a great ascetic because you are patient.

You will be a great personage because you cherish others more than yourself.

You will be a great practitioner of virtue bcause your activities never depart from Dharma practice.

You will be a great upholder of the vinaya because you are calm, composed, and untarnished by non-virtue.


5 skandhas (heaps, aggregates)

form (rupa, gzugs)

feeling (vedana, tshor-ba)

perception (samjna, du-shes)

volition, formations, impulses (samskara, du-byed)

consciousness (vijnana, rnam-par-shes-pa)


5 wisdoms or pristine awarenesses

sameness (to know without judgement)

mirrorlike (to know clearly)

distinguishing (to know the particulars)

effective (to know what to do)

totality (to know the totality)


5 wrong livelihoods for lay followers [note 60]

trading with weapons

trading in living beings

trading in meat

trading in intoxicants

trading in poison


5 wrong livelihoods for monks [note 61]

flattery [note complementing a benefactor in hope of getting something in return]

hinting (at things you want to receive)

giving [note a trifle] in order to receive [note something better]

exerting pressure on others [note in order to get something they have]

being on one's best behavior


6 differences that make for heavy or light karma [note 62] (see also 5 factors)

heavy by nature (killing, etc, because of the amount of suffering caused)

heavy because of the intention (the act itself is light, but due to strong delusion)

heavy because of the deed (killing sadistically, killing humans versus animals, etc)

heavy because of the basis (the potency of the target, eg one's teacher, the sangha, etc)

heavy because of always being done (eg idle gossip)

heavy becuase no antidote has been applied


6 elements [note 63]

earth, water, fire, air, space, consciousness


6 factors for negative karma [note 64]

1. the nature of the action (for bodily and verbal actions, in deceasing severity: killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying, divisive speech, hurtful speech, idle gossip; for mental actions, holding wrong view, malice, and covetousness).2. the intention (eg, rage versus mild anger)

3. the method (eg, whether killing is done sadistically)

4. the object (action is more severe if the object is an object of refuge, mentors, etc)

5. how often the act is committed

6. whether an antidote is applied or not


5 perceptions conducive to liberation (6 perceptions conducive to penetration) [note 65]

impermanence (anicca)

suffering (dukkha)

not-self (anatta)

abandoning (pahana-sanna)

dispassion (viraga-sanna)



6 perfections (see also 10 perfections)

generosity (dana, sbyinpa)

morality (sila, tshul-khrims)

patience (ksanti, bzod-pa)

effort (virya, brston-grus)

meditation (dhyana, bsam-gtan)

wisdom (prajna, shes-rab)


6 root delusions [note 66]

1. desirous attchment

2. anger

3. deluded pride

4. ignorance

5. deluded doubt

6. deluded view (viewing one's self as permanent, as extremely permanent or as ceasing, holding false views as supreme, holding wrong morality and conduct as supreme, denial of karma or emptiness or other casues of liberation)


6 roots of contention (vivada-mulani) [note 67]

anger and ill-will, disrespect and discourtesy

deceit and malice

envy and meanness

cunning and deceit

evil desires and wrong views



6 yogas of Naropa

inner heat (candali, gtum-mo)

illusory body (mayadeha, sgyu-lus)

dream (svapna, rmi-lam)

luminosity (prabhasvara, od-gsal)

ejection of consciousness (samkranti, pho-ba)

bardo (antarabhava, bardo)


7 branch prayer [note 68] (see also 8 branch prayer and ten vows of Samantabhadra)

homage (counteracts pride)

offering (counteracts selfishness)

confession (counteracts 3 poisons)

rejoicing (counteracts jealousy)

requesting the wheel of the Dharma be turned (counteracts ignorance)

requesting the buddhas to remain (counteracts belief in permanence, and disparaging the teacher)

dedication (counteracts anger)


7 causes of bodhicitta [note 69]

understanding all sentient beings to be your mother

remembering their kindness

repaying their kindness


great compssion


developing bodhicitta


7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, bodhyanga) [note 70]

1. mindfulness (smriti)

2. investigating phenomena (distinguishing right and wrong) (vicana)

3. energy and exertion (virya)

4. delight or joy (priti)

5. tranquillity (pacification through overcoming conflicting disturbing emotions) (pasaddhi)

6. equanimity (upeksha)

7. freedom from discrimination


7 factors of mindfulness [note 71]


investigation of states







7 fetters [note 72]




7 grounds for commendation [note 73]

to undertake the training

to study the Dhamma

to get rid of desires

to find solitude

to aroouse energy

to develop mindfulness and discrimination (sati-nepakke)

to develop penetrative insight


7 perceptions [note 74]

of impermanence

of not-self

of foulness

of danger

of abandonment

of dispassion

of cessation


7 powers (balani) [note 75]



moral shame

moral dread





7 proclivities [note 76]

sensous greed





craving for becoming



7 right practices [note 77] (see also 7 treasures)


moral shame (hiri)

moral dread (ottappa)

learning (suta)

aroused vigor




7 treasures [note 78] (see also 7 right practices)



moral shame (hiri)

moral dread (ottappa)

learning (suta)

renunciation (caga)



7 rules for pacification and settlment of disputes [note 79]

proceedings face-to-face

recollection (sati)

mental derangment


majority verdict

habitual bad character

covering over with grass

8 absorptions (jhanas) [note 80]

Withdrawn from sensuality, withdrawn from unskillful (mental) qualities one enters and remains in the first jhana: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation.

perceptions of sensuality cease

With the stilling of directed thought and evaluation, one enters and remains in the second jhana: rapture and pleasure born of composure, unification of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation -- internal assurance.

thinking and pondering cease

With the fading of rapture one remains in equanimity, mindful, and fully alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure, one enters and remains in the third jhana, and of him the Noble Ones declare, 'Equanimous and mindful, he has a pleasurable abiding.'

delight ceases

With the abandoning of pleasure and pain -- as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress -- one enters and remains in the fourth jhana: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neither pleasure nor pain."

breathing ceases

sphere of infinite space

perception of materiality ceases

sphere of infinite consciousness

the sphere of infinite space ceases

sphere of sphere of no-thingness

the sphere of infinite consciousness ceases

sphere of neither perception nor non-peception

the sphere of no-thingness ceases

cessation of perception and feeling

perception and feeling ceases


8 auspicious symbols (ashtamangala) [note 81]

parasol (royal dignity which shields from harm)

two fish (emblem of universal monarch)

conch shell (victory in battle)

lotus blossom (purity)

vase (filled with nectar of immortality)

furled banner (victory of spirrituality)

knot of eternity

wheel of the teaching


8 bases for giving [note 82]

as occasion offers

from fear

thinking "he gave me something"

thinking "he will give me something"

thinking "it is good to give"

thinking "I have something, they do not; it would not be right not to give them something"

thinking "if I make this gift I will acquire a good reputation

in order to adorn and prepare one’s heart


8 benefits of taking refuge [note 83] (see also 10 benefits of bodhicitta)

1. you become a buddhist

2. you become a candidate for vows

3. you will use up obscurations previously accumulated

4. you will easily accumulate merit

5. you will not be bothered by the harmful actions of humans or creatures

6. you will not fall to the lower realms

7. you will effortlesslly achieve your temporary and long-term aims

8. you will soon be enlightened


8 bodhisattvas (see also 7-branch and 10-branch prayers)










8 branch prayer [note 84]

1. homage

2. refuge

3. offering

4. confession

5. rejoicing

6. requesting teachings

7. requesting teachers remain

8. dedication


8-fold path (ashtangika-marga) [note 85]

1. Right View (Right Understanding) = the four noble truths, impermanence, karma, etc.

2. Right Resolve (Right Intention) = freedom from sensuality and ill-will; harmlessness.

3. Right Speech = abstaining from lying, divisive speech, abusive speech, and idle chatter.

4. Right Action = abstaining from taking life, stealing, and sexual misconduct.

5. Right Livelihood = not trading in weapons, living beings, meat, intoxicants, or poison.

6. Right Effort = avoiding the unwholesome, overcoming the unwholesome, developing the wholesome such as the 7 factors of enlightenment, and maintaining the wholesome.

7. Right Mindfulness = the body, feelings, mind, and mental qualities.

8. Right Concentration.


8 freedoms from undesirable states

1. upholding wrong views

2. being an animal

3. being a hungry ghost

4. being born in a hell

5. beng with a Buddha's teachings

6. being born in a remote place [note without the teachings]

7. being born as a barbarian [note without the teachings]

8. being born with mental or physical disabilities

9. being born as a god


8 guests at the chod feast [note 86] (see also 4 demons)

1. Visible or imaginary enemies that bring forth anger and aversion.

2. Negative forces that cause hindrances.

3. Conditions that cut apart merit or interfere with one’s practice.

4. Demons of karma, such as clinging to the notion of a self, or the ignorance which led to rebirth in this present life.

5. Physical demons, such as those involved in identifying the psycho-physical aggregates as being an "I".

6. The demons of frightful places in the wilderness.

7. One’s father, representing all beings, each of whom has been one’s parent in the past.

8. One’s mother, representing all beings, each of whom has been one’s parent in the past.


8 liberations (ashtavimoksha) [note 87]

1. cognition of internal and external forms as impure, to overcome attachment to forms

2. cognitions of forms externally but not internally)

3. cognition of the beautiful; no attachment to beauty arises; contemplation of impurity is dropped

4. attainment of the field of the limitlessness of space

5. attainment of the field of the limitlessness of consciousness

6. attainment of the field of nothing whatsoever

7. attainment of the field of neither perception nor nonperception

8. cessation of perception and feeling


8 ripened qualities [note 88]

1. long life [note allowing progress in Dharma]

2. handsome body [note to attract disciples]

3. high family [note makes others heed your orders]

4. great wealth [note to attract beings and ripen them with Dharma]

5. trustworthy speech [note enabling others to apprehend the truth]

6. great power and fame [note makes others follow your orders]

7. being a male [note not being afraid in a crowd, having few hindrances, etc]

8. being strong in mind and body


8 worldy conditions (loka-dhamma) [note 89]

gain and loss

fame and shame

praise and blame

pleasure and pain


9 stages of shamata and 4 attentions [note 90]

placing the mind

fixing the mind

tight attention

continual placement

fixing with some continuity


patchy fixation


interrupted attention

close placement

good fixation


becoming disciplined


becoming peaceful

completely pacifying

becoming very pacified


becoming single-pointed

uninterrupted attention

placement in equipose

fixed absorption

spontaneous attention


9 unfortunate times [note 91]

1. being born in a hell-state

2. as an animals

3. as a hungry ghost

4. as a jealous god

5. as a god

6. among barbarians

7. having wrong views and distorted vision and thinking (not believing in karma, etc), and there are no ascetics or teachers

8. lacking wisdom, or is deaf and dumb

9. where no Tathagata has arisen


10 benefits of bodhicitta [note 92] (see also 8 benefits of taking refuge)

1. the only way to enter the Mahayana is to develop bodhicitta

2. you gain the name Child of the Victors

3. you outshine the shravakas and pratyekabuddhas

4. you become the supreme object of offerings

5. you accumulate merit with ease

6. you purify sins and obscurations

7. you accomplish whatever you wish

8. you are not bothered by harm and hindrances

9. you complete the entire path

10. you become a source of happiness for others


10 bodhisattva rules (bodhisattva-sila) [note 93]

refraining from killing

refraining from stealing

refraining from unchaste behavior

refraining from lying

refraining from the use of intoxicants

refraining from gossip

refraining from boasting

refraining from envy

refraining from resentment and ill will

refraining from slandering the 3 jewels


10 bhumis (lands) [note 94]

1. Joy (pramudita) in having aroused bodhicitta and taken the bodhisattva vow; cultivation of generosity; freedom from egotistical thoughts; recognition of the emptiness of the ego and all dharmas.

2. Purity (vimala). Perfection of discipline ; freedom from lapses; practice of dhyana and samadhi.

3. Radiance (prabhakari). Insight into impermanence; cultivation of patience in bearing difficulties and helping all beings; one has cut off the 3 poisons; determination; satiety with worldly life; passionlessness; achievement of four absorptions (dhyana) and 4 stages of formlessness; acquisition of the first 5 of the 6 supernatural powers (abhijna).

4. Blazing land (archismati). Remaining false conceptions are burned; one develops wisdom; cultivation of exertion and perfection of the 37 requisites of enlightenment.

5. Extremely difficult to conquer (sudurjaya). Absorption in meditation in order to grasp the truth; understanding of the 4 noble truths and 2 truths; doubt is cleared away and what is proper is known; further perfection of 37 requisites.

6. View of wisdom (abhimukhi). One recognizes all dharmas are free from characteristics, arising, manifoldness, and distinction between existence and nonexistence; insight into conditioned arising; transcendence of discriminating thought; perfection of wisdom and comprehension of emptiness.

7. Far-reaching (durangama). One has gained knowledge and skillful means; one is a transcendent bodhisattva and can manifest in any form; falling back to lower levels of existence is impossible.

8. Immovable (achala). One can no longer be disturbed by anything since one has received knowledge of where and when one will attain buddhahood; one gains the ability to transfer merit to other beings and renounces the accumulation of further merit.

9. Good thoughts (sadhumati). Wisdom is complete; one possesses the 10 powers, 6 supernatural powers, the 4 certainties, the 8 liberations, and the dharanis. One knows the nature of all dharmas and expounds the teaching.

10. Dharma clouds (dharmamegha). All understanding (jnana) and virtue are realized; the 3 bodies are fully developed. Examples are Maitreya and Manjushri.


10 endowments (see also 9 unfortunate times)

being a human

being born in a central land

having all one's faculties

not being perverted by the heinous crimes

having enduring faith

a buddha has come

a buddha has taught

the teachings remain

the teachings are followed

others have love in their hearts


10 fetters from which arhats are free (samyojana) [note 95]

belief in self (ditthi, drishti)

scepticism or doubt (vicikiccha, vichikitsa)

attachment to rules and rituals (silabbata-paramasa)

sensuous craving (kamaraga)

ill-will (vyapada)

craving for the world of form (rupa-raga)

craving for the formless world (arupa-raga)

conceit (mana)

restlessness (udhacca)

ignorance (avijja, avidya)


10 minds of the bodhisattavas [note 96]


10 negative actions



sexual misconduct



abusive speech

senseless speech



wrong views


10 objects for attaining absorption [note 97]












10 perfections (paramitas) (Mahayana)

1. generosity (dana)

2. discipline, morality, ethics (sila)

3. patience (ksanti)

4. effort, joyous energy, diligence (virya)

5. concentration, meditation (dhyana)

6. wisdom (prajna)

7. skillful means (upaya)

8. resolution (pranidhana)

9. strength (bala)

10. knowledge (jnana)


10 perfections (paramitas) (Theravada)

1. generosity (dana)

2. morality (sila)

3. reunnciation (nekkhamma)

4. wisdom (panna)

5. energy (viriya)

6. patience (khanti)

7. truthfulness (sacca)

8. determination (adhitthana)

9. lovingkindness (metta)

10. equanimity (upekkha)


10 powers

1. lifespan

2. mind state

3. necessities

4. control of physical, mental, verbal action

5. transform earth into gold etc

6. supplication (fulfill any aim)

7. miracles

8. wisdom

9. ability to teach any Dharma


10 powers [note 98]

1. power of instant magical emanation

2. power which is a vehicle with every door

3. power of excellent activity

4. power of all-pervading love

5. power of constantly positive energy

6. power of passionless wisdom

7. power of knowledge

8. power of method

9. power of samadhi

10. power of enlightenment


10 powers of a tathagata [note 99]

1. knowing what is possible

2. knowing the results of actions

3. knowing the aspirations of men

4. knowing the elements

5. knowing the higher and lower powers of men

6. knowing the path that leads everywhere

7. knowing the origins of klesas, which leads to meditation, liberation, samadhi, and equanimity

8. knowing previous lives

9. knowledge of transference and death

10. knowing that the defilements are exhausted


10 powers of a buddha [note 100]

1. knowing right from wrong

2. knowing the consequences of actions

3. knowing the various inclinations of living beings

4. knowing the various types of living beings

5. knowing the degree of capacities of living beings

6. knowing the path that leads everywhere

7. knowing the obscurations, afflications, and purifications of all contemplations, meditations, liberations, concentrations, and absorptions

8. knowing one's former lives

9. knowing the time of death and future lives

10. knowing the exhaustion of defilements


10 qualities of a teacher [note 101] (the 1st 3 are crucial)

their mind-stream should be subdued by ethics, concentration, and wisdom

their mental distraction should be pacificed by concentration and their grasping at self should be pacified by wisdom

has realization into suchness

has love and compassion

has more qualities than you

has perseverance

has wealth of scripture

is a skilled speaker

has given up disappointment


10 strengths [note 102]

knowing what is beneficial and harmful

taking responsibility for one's actions

knowing the dispositions of students

knowing their motivations

knowing their capacities

knowing the omniscient path

knowing the relevant relationships of the 5 powers, 5 strengths, 7 factors of enlightenment, 8 liberations, absorptions, etc.

knowing previous lives.

knowing death, rebirth, etc.

knowing cessation of contamination


10 things that give protection [note 103]

1. morality, restraint and discipline.

2. learning much, retaining what one has learned, reflcting upon it and penetrating it with vision.

3. being a friend, associate, and intimate of good people.

4. being affable, gentle, patient, and quick to grasp instruction.

5. carrying out whatever jobs are to be done with skill, energy, foresight, and good planning.

6. lovng the Dhamma and delighting in hearing it, especially advanced docrtine and discipline.

7. being content with any kind of requisities (clothing, shelter, medicines, etc).

8. ever arousing energy, getting rid of unwholesome states, establishing wholesome states, and never shaking off burdens.

9. mindful, clearly recalling things done and said.

10. having wise perception of arising and passing away.


10 vows of Samantabhadra [note 104]

1. To pay homage to and respect all Buddhas.

2. To praise the Thus Come Ones.

3. To make abundant offerings.

4. To repent of and overcome karmic obstacles.

5. To rejoice in all merits and virtues.

6. To request the turning of the Dharma wheel.

7. To request that the Buddhas remain in the world.

8. To study always with the Buddhas.

9. To be in harmony with living beings always.

10. To transfer all merit and virtue.


11 topics of training in bodhicitta (combining 7-fold cause and effect with exchanging self and others) [note 105]


recognition that all beings were your mothers

recollecting their kindness

wishing to repay their kindness

equality of self and others

contemplating the faults of self-cherishing

contemplating the good qualities of cherishing others

taking the suffering of others

giving happiness to others

developing altruism

developing the wish to achieve full enlightenment


12 links of interdependence

1. ignorance (avidya)

2. formations, impulses, volition (samsakara)

3. consciousness (vijnana)

4. name and form (namarupa)

5. six senses (shadayatana)

6. contact (sparsha)

7. feeling, sensation (vedana)

8. desire (trishna)

9. attachment, craving (upadana)

10. becoming (bhava)

11. birth (jati)

12. old age and death (jara-maranam)


16 kinds of emptiness [note 106] (see also 4 divisions)

1. of internal entities (six senses)

2. of external entities (sense-forms)

3. of things that are both internal and external

4. of emptiness

5. of immensity (the 10 directions)

6. of the ultimate (nirvana)

7. of the conditioned (the 3 worlds)

8. of the unconditioned

9. of that which is beyond extremes (of permanence and annhilation)

10. of that which has neither beginning nor end (samsara)

11. of that which is not to be discarded (the Mahayana)

12. of a phenomena's own nature

13. of all phenomena (18 elements, 6 contacts, 6 feelings, and all other material and immaterial, conditioned and unconditioned phenomena)

14. of defining characteristics

15. of the non-apprehensible (of the 3 times)

16. of non-things (things are not inherently compounded because they arise from causes and conditions)


16 kinds of emptiness [note 107]

1. the emptiness of sense objects

2. the emptiness of sense faculties

3. the emptiness of sensing

4. the emptiness of emptiness itself

5. the emptiness of what is great

6. the emptiness of what is ultimate

7. the emptiness of conditioned experience

8. the emptiness of unconditioned experience

9. the emptiness of what is not a position

10. the emptiness of what has no beginning or end

11. the emptiness of what is not given up

12. the emptiness of essence

13. the emptiness of all experience

14. the emptiness of defining attributes

15. the emptiness of what doesn’t exist

16. the emptiness of things consisting of non-things


16 thoughts preventing realization [note 108]

1. Dislike or disrespect for our spiritual guide.

2. Not wishing to take the essence of this precious human life.

3. Not remembering death.

4. Being attached to the pleasures and happiness of this life alone.

5. Not fearing rebirth in the lower realms.

6. Not wishing to go for refuge in the three jewels.

7. Not having faith or conviction in the law of karma.

8. Seeking to accumulate non-virtuous actions and not virtuous actions.

9. Regarding cyclic existence as having the nature of happiness.

10. Wishing to increase delusions and contaminated actions.

11. Being uninterested in gaining liberation.

12. Not wanting to practice the three higher trainings which are the causes of liberation.

13. Forsaking mother living beings.

14. Self-cherishing.

15. Self-grasping.

16. Disliking the practice of secret mantra.


37 factors of enlightenment (bodhipaksika-dharma) [note 109]

4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthana)

4 perfect efforts

4 roads to power (riddhipada)

5 roots (indriya)

5 powers (bala)

7 factors of enlightenment (bodhyanga)

8 fold path


37 practices of bodhisattvas [note 110]

1. enthusiastic perseverance

2. abandoning birthplace

3. to be free from distractions

4. preoccupation with this life

5. avoiding evil people

6. treasuring the spiritual master

7. taking refuge

8. refraining from negative deeds

9. desiring liberation

10. generating bodhicitta

11. exchanging self with others

12. dedicating body, wealth and virtues

13. accepting the negativities of others

14. returning praise for insult

15. seeing enemies as spiritual teachers

16. giving unconditional love

17. remaining humble when criticized

18. taking on the suffering of others

19. avoiding arrogance

20. eliminating the enemy within

21. abandoning sensory indulgences

22. dispelling belief in inherent existence

23. seeing attractive objects as rainbow-like

24. seeing undesirable things as illusory

25. perfecting generosity

26. perfecting morality

27. perfecting patience

28. perfecting enthusiastic perseverance

29. perfecting concentration

30. perfecting wisdom

31. getting rid of faults

32. avoiding bringing up others faults

33. abandoning attachment to households

34. not returning harsh words

35. eliminating bad habits

36. being alert

37. dedicating all merit


40 objects of meditation including absorption (dhyana), contemplation (samapati), and concentration (samadhi) [note 111]

10 kasina exercises

contemplation of the 10 disgusting objects (ashubha)

10 contemplations (anussati)

4 brahmaviharas

4 stages of formlessness

contemplation of the repugnance of food

analysis of the 4 elements (dhatu-vavatthana)


51 mental factors [note 112]

51 mental factors most relevant to spiritual practice, from the Abhidharmakosha of Vasubandu

The 5 omnipresent (ever-recurring) mental factors

1. Feeling (the first aggregate)

2. Recognition / discrimination / distinguishing awareness (the second aggregate)

3. Intention / mental impulse - I will ...

4. Concentration / attention / mental application - focused grasping of an object of awareness

5. Contact - the connection of an object with the mind, this may be pleasurable, painful or neutral as experienced by the aggregate of Feeling.

The 5 determinative mental factors

6. Resolution / aspiration - directing effort to fulfil desired intention, basis for diligence and enthusiasm.

7. Interest / appreciation - holding on to a particular thing, not allowing distraction

8. Mindfulness / Recollection - repeatedly bringing objects back to mind, not forgetting

9. Concentration / Samadhi - one-pointed focus on an object, basis for increasing intelligence

10. Intelligence / Wisdom - "common-sense intelligence", fine discrimination, examines characteristics of objects, stops doubt, maintains root of all wholesome qualities.

The 4 variable (positive or negative) mental factors

11. Sleep - makes mind unclear, sense consciousness turns inwards

12. Regret - makes mind unhappy when regarding a previously done action as bad, prevents the mind from being at ease.

13. General examination / coarse discernment - depending on intelligence or intention, searches for rough idea about the object.

14. Precise analysis / subtle discernment - depending on intelligence or intention, examines the object in detail.

The 11 virtuous mental factors

(Note that 18 and 19 are not necessary always virtuous. The first 3 are also known as roots of virtue.)

15. Faith / confidence / respectful belief - gives us positive attitude to virtue and objects that are worthy of respect. Three types are distinguished, with the last one being the preferred type:

a. uncritical faith: motivation is for no apparent reason

b. longing faith: motivation is by an emotionally unstable mind

c. conviction: motivated by sound reasons

16. Sense of Propriety / self-respect - usually the personal conscience to stop negative actions and perform positive actions

17. Considerateness / decency - avoids evil towards others, basis for unspoiled moral discipline.

18. Suppleness / thorough training / flexibility - enables the mind to engage in positive acts as wished, interrupting mental or physical rigidity.

19. Equanimity / clear-minded tranquility - peaceful mind, not being overpowered by delusions, no mental dullness or agitation

20. Conscientiousness / carefulness - causes avoiding negative acts & doing good; mind with detachment, non-hatred, non-ignorance and enthusiasm

21. Renunciation / detachment - no attachment to cyclic existence and objects

22. Non hatred / imperturbability - no animosity to others or conditions; rejoicing

23. Non-bewilderment / non ignorance / open-mindedness - usually understanding the meaning of things through clear discrimination, never unwilling to learn

24. Non violence / complete harmlessness - compassion without any hatred, pacifist

25. Enthusiasm / diligence - doing positive acts (specifically mental development and meditation) with delight

The 26 non-virtuous mental factors

The 6 root delusions (Delusion is defined as any secondary mental factor that, when developed, brings about suffering and uneasiness to self or others.)

26. Ignorance - not knowing karma, meaning and practice of 3 Jewels, includes closed-mindedness, lack of wisdom of emptiness.

27. Attachment / desire - definition: not wanting to be separated from someone or something. Grasping at aggregates in cyclic existence causes rebirth & suffering of existence

28. Anger - definition: wanting to be separated from someone or something, can lead to relentless desire to hurt others; causes unhappiness

29. Pride - inflated superiority, supported by one's worldly views, which include disrespect of others

30. Doubt / deluded indecisive wavering - being in two minds about reality; usually leads to negative actions

31. Wrong views / speculative delusions - based on emotional afflictions. Distinguished in 5 types: belief in the self as permanent or non-existent (as opposite to the view of emptiness); denying karma, not understanding the value of the 3 Jewels; closed-mindedness (my view -which is wrong- is best); wrong conduct (not towards liberation)

The 20 secondary non-virtuous mental factors

Derived from anger:

32. Wrath / hatred - by increased anger, malicious state wishing to cause immediate harm to others

33. Vengeance / malice / resentment - not forgetting harm done by a person, and seeking to return harm done to oneself

34. Rage / spite / outrage - intention to utter harsh speech in reply to unpleasant words, when wrath and malice become unbearable

35. Cruelty / vindictiveness / mercilessness - being devoid of compassion or kindness, seeking harm to others.

Derived from anger and attachment:

36. Envy / jealousy - internal anger caused by attachment; unbearable to bear good things others have

Derived from attachment:

37. Greed / avarice / miserliness - intense clinging to possessions and their increase

38. Vanity / self-satisfaction - seeing one's good fortune giving one a false sense of confidence; being intoxicated with oneself

39. Excitement / wildness / mental agitation - distraction towards desire objects, not allowing the mind to rest on something wholesome; obstructs single pointed concentration.

Derived from ignorance:

40. Concealment - hiding one's negative qualities when others with good intention refer to them this causes regret

41. Dullness / muddle-headedness - caused by fogginess which makes mind dark/heavy - like when going to sleep, coarse dullness is when the object is unclear, subtle dullness is when the object has no intense clarity

42. Faithlessness - no belief of that which is worthy of respect; it can be the idea that virtue is unnecessary, or a mistaken view of virtue; it forms the basis for laziness (43)

43. Laziness - being attached to temporary pleasure, not wanting to do virtue or only little; opposite to diligence [note 25])

44. Forgetfulness - causes to not clearly remember virtuous acts, inducing distraction to disturbing objects - not "just forgetting", but negative tendency

45. Inattentiveness / lack of conscience - "distracted wisdom" after rough or no analysis, not fully aware of one's conduct, careless indifference and moral failings; intentional seeking mental distraction like daydreaming

Derived from attachment and ignorance:

46. Hypocrisy / pretension - pretend non-existent qualities of oneself

47. Dishonesty / smugness - hiding one's faults, giving no clear answers, no regret, snobbery & conceit, self-importance and finding faults with others

Derived from attachment, anger and ignorance

48. Shamelessness - consciously not avoiding evil, it supports all root and secondary delusions

49. Inconsiderateness - not avoiding evil, being inconsiderate of other's practice, ingratitude

50. Unconscientiousness / carelessness- 3 delusions plus laziness; wanting to act unrestrained

51. Distraction / mental wandering - inability to focus on any virtuous object



[note 1] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 2] Ken McLeod, Wake Up to Your Life, p. 327.

[note 3] Sangiti Suuta.

[note 4] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 5] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 6] Sangiti Suuta.

[note 7] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 8] Sangiti Suuta.

[note 9] Trungpa/Nalanda, Rain of Wisdom, p. 348.

[note 10] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 11] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 12] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 13] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 14] Sangiti Suuta.

[note 15] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 16] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 17] Ken McLeod, Wake Up to Your Life, p. 32-34.

[note 18] Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Joyful Path of Good Fortune, p. 518.

[note 19] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 20] The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, p. 71.

[note 21] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 22] Jerome Edou, Machig Labdron and the Foundations of Chod, p. 67-71.

[note 23] Ken McLeod, Wake Up To Your Life.

[note 24] Chandrakirti, Madhyamakavatara (Guide to the Middle Way), chapter 6, trans. by Stephen Batchelor, in Geshe Ranten's Echoes of Voidness.

[note 25] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 26] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 27] Trungpa/Nalanda, Rain of Wisdom, p. 348.

[note 28] Ken McLeod, Wake Up to Your Life, p. 219ff.

[note 29] Jamgon Kongtrul, quoting The Verse Summary in Jerome Edou, Machig Labdron and the Foundations of Chod, p. 40.

[note 30] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 31] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 32] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 33] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 34] Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Joyful Path of Good Fortune, p. 480.

[note 35] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 36] Trungpa/Nalanda, Rain of Wisdom, p. 359.

[note 37] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 38] Ken McLeod, Wake Up to Your Life, p. 188-191.

[note 39] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 40] Trungpa/Nalanda, Rain of Wisdom, p. 342.

[note 41] Sangiti Suuta.

[note 42] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 209.

[note 43] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 450.

[note 44] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 45] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 46] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 47] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 48] Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Joyful Path of Good Fortune, p. 490.

[note 49] Trungpa/Nalanda, Rain of Wisdom, p. 345.

[note 50] Established by Tung-shan Liang-chieh; cited in The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, p. 69.

[note 51] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 513-4.

[note 52] Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Joyful Path of Good Fortune, p. 258.

[note 53] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 54] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 55] Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Joyful Path of Good Fortune, p. 31.

[note 56] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 654ff.

[note 57] Ken McLeod, Wake Up to Your Life, p. 74-83.

[note 58] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 59] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 681.

[note 60] Anguttara Nikaya.

[note 61] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 142.

[note 62] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 450-451.

[note 63] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 64] Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Joyful Path of Good Fortune, p. 248.

[note 65] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 66] Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Joyful Path of Good Fortune, p. 314.

[note 67] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 68] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 233.

[note 69] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 572.

[note 70] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 71] Mahasatipatthana Sutta.

[note 72] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 73] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 74] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 75] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 76] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 77] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 78] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 79] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 80] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 81] dic p. 62.

[note 82] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 83] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 418.

[note 84] Jerome Edou, Machig Labdron and the Foundations of Chod, p. 145-6.

[note 85] Magga-vibhanga Sutta.

[note 86] Jerome Edou, Machig Labdron and the Foundations of Chod, p. 40.

[note 87] dic p. 63.

[note 88] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 460.

[note 89] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 90] Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Joyful Path of Good Fortune, p. 381 and 518.

[note 91] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 92] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 550.

[note 93] dic p. 25, citing the Brahmajala-sutra.

[note 94] dic p. 21-22, citing the Dasabhumika Sutra.

[note 95] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 96] Maharatnakuta Sutra, cited by Pure Land Buddhism.

[note 97] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 98] from Extraordinary Aspiration of the Practice of Samantabhadra (King of Prayers), translated by Jesse Fenton.

[note 99] Trungpa/Nalanda, Rain of Wisdom, p. 361.

[note 100] Geshe Rabten, Echoes of Voidness, glossary, citing Thurman, The Holy Teachings of Vimalakirti.

[note 101] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 272-3.

[note 102] Sakya Pandita, Illuminations.

[note 103] Sangiti Sutta.

[note 104] Avatamsaka (Flower Adornment) Sutra, Chapter 40, trans. by by Mark Andrews

[note 105] Pabongka, Liberation in the Palm of Your Hand, trans. Michael Richards (Wisdom Publications), p. 609.

[note 106] Chandrakirti, Madhyamakavatara (Guide to the Middle Way), chapter 6, trans. by Stephen Batchelor, in Geshe Ranten's Echoes of Voidness.

[note 107] Meditations on Emptiness, Jeffrey Hopkins

[note 108] Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Joyful Path of Good Fortune, p. 83.

[note 109] Geshe Kelsang Gyatso, Joyful Path of Good Fortune, p. 610.

[note 110] The 37 Practices of all Buddhas' Sons (rgyal-sras lag-len so-dun-ma), by Tomey Zangpo (from Keys to Great Enlightenment, by Geshe Tsultrim Gyeltsen, Thubten Dhargye Ling Publications, Los Angeles, 1989).

[note 111] dic p. 20, citing the Visuddhimagga.

[note 112] http://buddhism.kalachakranet.org/mind.html